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  1. #1 GETTYSBURG .... July 1, July 3, 1863 
    An Adversary of Linda #'s
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    Day the Sun Stood Still - Gettysburg
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GQzMW...eature=related
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    Gettysburg Civil War reenactment footage
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EDxrB...eature=related
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    The Irish Brigade

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7qVCx...eature=related
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    Gettysburg Movie the best part
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wYDhA...eature=related
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    Buford, just before the battle
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    The Devil To Pay
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    Gettysburg, 1st Day: Heth engages Buford's cavalry
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQvj2HfEokE
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    Gettysburg, 1st Day: Reynolds Arrives
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    Pickett's Charge (Part 1: The Bombardment)
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    Pickett's Charge (Part 2: The March)

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    Pickett's Charge (Part 3: The Battle)
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    Pickett's Charge (Part 4: The High Water Mark)
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    Pickett's Charge (Part 5: The Aftermath)
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    The Battle of Little Round Top (1 of 4)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P6VgT...eature=related
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    The Battle of Little Round Top (2 of 4)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=obteO...eature=related
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    The Battle of Little Round Top (3 of 4)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HoLc0...eature=related
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    The Battle of Little Round Top (4 of 4)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2JQN_...eature=related
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    Last edited by megimoo; 05-04-2009 at 11:57 PM.
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  2. #2  
    An Adversary of Linda #'s
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    God Bless America By Kate Smith
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    Ronan Tynan Sings God Bless America At Yankee Stadium
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    The Marine Hynm
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    Gettysburg Soundtrack: Main Title
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    gods and generals
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    Confederate Anthem
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    Bonnie Blue Flag
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    NEW Gettysburg 145th Anniversary DVD preview
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    Gettysburg Soundtrack: Men of Honor
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LmC82JM0Pts
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    Gettysburg Soundtrack: Dawn
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    Gettysburg Soundtrack: Dixie
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    Gettysburg Soundtrack: Kathleen Mavourneen
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    Gettysburg Soundtrack: From History to Legend
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hFK8_...eature=related
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  3. #3  
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    I dont know much about the Battle but did the Marines play any part in it? lol I know its a silly question.
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  4. #4  
    Senior Member newshutr's Avatar
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    If you've ever been there, the first thing you'll ask yourself is "What was Lee thinking sending those men across that open area?"

    I've been there more than 50 times. It's incredible.
    Yes..this camera is heavy.
    No...you can't be on TV.
    Look kid, go bother the reporter...I'm busy!!!
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  5. #5  
    Senior Member Rebel Yell's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by newshutr View Post
    If you've ever been there, the first thing you'll ask yourself is "What was Lee thinking sending those men across that open area?"

    I've been there more than 50 times. It's incredible.
    Lee knew it was now or never.
    I feel that once a black fella has referred to white foks as "honky paleface devil white-trash cracker redneck Caspers," he's abdicated the right to get upset about the "N" word. But that's just me. -- Jim Goad
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  6. #6  
    Senior Betwixt Member Bubba Dawg's Avatar
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    May the young men who fought and died there rest in peace. I am in awe of them all, on both sides.

    My ancestors fought for the Confederacy. Many Southern men went north and fought for the Union. Many fough for the grey. I'm sure it was a hard choice for many to choose between the United States and the Confederate States.

    Gettysburg was pivotal. Monumental.

    I have never been there but I want to visit.

    The book on which the movie Gettysburg was based is called The Killer Angels. It is a good read.
    Hey careful man! There's a beverage here!
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  7. #7  
    Quote Originally Posted by Rebel Yell View Post
    Lee knew it was now or never.
    Lee was of the belief that his army was invincible, that they could overcome impossible odds simply because they believed in the fight. They had won a string of battles against the north and he ignored the situation as it existed on the ground and made critical decisions while in a state of uncertainty as a result of Custer's general neglect of his primary responsibility to be his commander's eyes on the ground.

    He simply wasn't willing to admit that he had blundered into a no win situation for an offensive action even though longstreet reminded him of this and warned him repeatedly.
    It is only upon careful observation, with a magnifying glass, on a sunny day, that one comes to realize how often ants burst into flames.
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  8. #8  
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    At Gettysburg, at first light on the first day of battle on July 1, 1863, Colonel Gamble's brigade did the early skirmishing with advance elements of Confederate General Heth's Division as they advanced on the Chambersburg Pike. Arriving in the town, Gamble established his headquarters on the grounds of the Lutheran Theological Seminary. Under the leadership of General Buford, Gamble's men employed a successful "defense in depth" delaying tactic until General John F. Reynolds and his I Corps could come up in support. Gamble was later made a full Brigadier.
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    John Buford was born in Kentucky in 1826 but was raised in Illinois. He graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., in 1848 -- 16th in a class of 38 cadets. Prior to the Civil War, Buford served on the frontier fighting Indians and took part in the Utah Expedition against the Mormons from 1858 to 1860.
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    In July 1862, he was appointed a brigadier general and given command of the Reserve Cavalry Brigade, Army of Virginia. Buford served with great distinction during the Second Bull Run campaign, gaining particular notice for the delaying action his brigade fought against Maj. Gen. James Longstreet's I Corps at Thoroughfare Gap on August 27. During the Second Battle of Bull Run, Buford was badly wounded, and at one point he was reported dead. Nevertheless, by September 17, he had recovered in time to see action at Antietam, as well as at Fredericksburg on December 13. He also served admirably in the Chancellorsville campaign in May 1863. It was Buford's cavalry division that spearheaded the attack on Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart's Confederate cavaliers at Brandy Station on June 9, 1863, when his troopers swept into the camp of Brig. Gen. William E. "Grumble" Jones' brigade at Beverly Ford at dawn and took 150 prisoners. Buford then served well at the cavalry battles of Aldie, Middleburg and Upperville, but the zenith of his career was still to come.
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    Colonel Theodore Lyman, a volunteer aide to Maj. Gen. George G. Meade who met Buford in 1863, gave the following description of the cavalry commander in a letter to his wife: "He is one of the best officers of that arm and is a singular-looking party...a compactly built man of middle height, with a tawny moustache and a little, triangular gray eye, whose expression is determined, not to say sinister...notwithstanding...he is a very soldierly-looking man [of] good natured disposition but not to be trifled with."
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    After General Meade took command of the Army of the Potomac on June 28, he ordered "a general movement toward Harrisburg," Pa., and sent Buford's cavalry to intercept the enemy. In his instructions to the cavalry on June 30, 1863, Meade stressed the need for the cavalry to render him "reliable information of the presence of the enemy" and that "cavalry battles must be secondary to this reporting."
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    Buford traveled unchallenged from Frederick, Md., on June 29 and met other commanders at Meade's headquarters. Buford and his corps commander, Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton, had discussed possible enemy contact locations and agreed that Gettysburg was a likely spot. After all, Buford had pointed out, there were "many roads, some ten or twelve at least concentrating there, so the army could easily converge to, or...diverge from this point." That gave Gettysburg, despite its size, strategic importance as a center for command and control.
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    The Union I Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds, was assigned to the left wing of the Army of the Potomac on June 30, and Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard's XI Corps was close beside the I Corps. Buford's cavalry division was sent ahead to search for the Army of Northern Virginia. Approaching Gettysburg via the Emmitsburg-Gettysburg Road at 11 a.m., Buford found the quaint rural village very quiet and passed through to a depression immediately west of Seminary Ridge. Then, suddenly, the vanguard of his unit spied approaching Confederate infantry. Buford observed Brig. Gen. James J. Pettigrew's brigade marching down the Cashtown Pike to carry out orders from their division commander, Maj. Gen. Henry Heth, to "take his brigade to Gettysburg, search the town for supplies (shoes especially) and return the same day."
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    Lee's Troops march through Cashtown on their way to Gettysburg
    The wording of Heth's order notwithstanding, it was Gettysburg's strategic location, not shoes, that attracted Confederate General Robert E. Lee's attention. Lee's orders to Heth, however, were to avoid a general engagement until Lee could concentrate his forces. Therefore, upon first contact with Buford, Pettigrew quickly disengaged and withdrew toward Cashtown, then set up pickets four miles west of Gettysburg. With great urgency, Buford had Colonel William Gamble's 1st Brigade and Lieutenant John F. Calef's artillery battery emplaced south of the Chambersburg Pike and the old packed roadbed, extending pickets and videttes (mounted pickets) westward. To protect his right flank to the north, Buford ordered Colonel Thomas C. Devin to deploy pickets and videttes from his 2nd Brigade on all roads leading to Gettysburg from the north.
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    Reynolds arrives at Gettysburg
    After scribbling messages to Reynolds and Meade, Buford surveyed the surrounding terrain with an experienced eye. The ridges ran generally north and south to form a basin, in the center of which lay Gettysburg, squeezed from the east and west by a series of long, rather flat hills and ridges. Between each of those features stretched fertile fields and lush pastures. A mile and a half west of the town stood Herr Ridge; 900 yards to the east, across a swale(a low area,especially a marshy area between ridges) through which meandered a sluggish little stream called Willoughby Run, was McPherson's Ridge; a few hundred yards south of the Chambersburg Pike stood the 17-acre patch of McPherson's Woods and Grove. Oddly, the usual tangle of forest growth was missing there. The grove was long and narrow, extending from the crest of the southern ridge to Willoughby's Run, whose banks offered excellent protection. That watercourse formed a natural line of defense that Buford could put to good use.
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    Another 500 yards to the east, about three-quarters of a mile from Gettysburg, lay Seminary Ridge, where the three-story, brick Lutheran Theological Seminary stood serenely 40 feet above the surrounding meadows. A short distance north of the Chambersburg Pike, Seminary Ridge merged with McPherson's Ridge; from there a single promontory, Oak Ridge, continued northward to Oak Hill, an 80-foot-high knob that dominated the area northwest of Gettysburg. The pike traversed the ridges from the northwest, and about 200 yards to the north, a railbed ran parallel to the road. The railbed was as deep as 20 feet in places, and no track had been laid yet. Nine other roads radiated from Gettysburg to all points on the compass.
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    The ground formed an excellent arena for hosting a major battle. Buford immediately dismounted his troopers to hold McPherson's Ridge -- the best terrain west of the town -- until infantry could reinforce them. As his brigade commanders pushed out pickets and videttes to the west and north, Buford took an accounting of their strength. Of Buford's three brigades, only two, those of colonels Gamble and Devin, were on hand. His Reserve Brigade, en route to Emmitsburg, would be unavailable for more support, leaving him with just under 3,000 men.
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    The Eve of Battle,Gen. J Buford, Gettysburg, June 30, 1863
    The cavalrymen's newly issued small arms were a point in their favor. The division had recently received its first allotment of Spencer rifles, augmenting the Sharps carbines already in service. The Sharps was a .52-caliber, single-shot, breech-loading weapon that could be fired at a rate of 10 rounds per minute. The Spencer repeating rifle was the first magazine-fed weapon, able to fire seven rapid-fire shots before requiring a reload.
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    Another factor in the Union cavalrymen's favor was their willingness to dismount and fight like infantry when the situation deemed it necessary. With the shock value of cavalry units largely rendered ineffective by the advances in firearm lethality and accuracy, new tactics were developed focusing on four main components: swift operational mobility outside enemy contact; readiness to dismount and fight on foot when the enemy was close; effective use of new small-arms advances;(Breech Loaders) and posting a mounted reserve that would be ready to make a saber charge at the decisive moment. Buford had been quick to recognize the inadequacies of the old Napoleonic school of cavalry use. While the Southern cavalryman saw his horse as an extension of himself, John Buford once stated that he considered his horse "strictly transportation." He, along with contemporary cavalry professionals such as the 2nd Division commander, Brig. Gen. David M. Gregg, embraced and developed the concept of cavalry as mounted infantry. That tactic produced a mixture of firepower and maneuverability that multiplied the force of a typically understrength cavalry division.
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  9. #9  
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    Reynolds & Buford at Gettysburg
    The night of June 30 was a busy one for the 1st Cavalry Division. Deploying scouts in all directions, Buford was able "to gain positive information of the enemy's position and movements" by dawn. Buford fanned his cavalrymen out in a 5-mile arc beginning north of Gettysburg, sweeping southwest and ending about a mile and a half from town. That formed a perilously extended defensive line for a force of only 2,748 -- a quarter of whom were detailed to hold horses for the other men. Gamble's 1st Brigade was emplaced along the east bank of Willoughby Run in a 1,000-yard-long line extending south from the railbed across the Chambersburg Pike. North of the railroad, Devin's 2nd Brigade reached to the base of Oak Hill. Moreover, with only six cannons, Buford knew that if attacked in force his division could conduct nothing more than a delaying action for Meade's advancing Union force.
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    Despite those odds, morale in the 1st Cavalry Division was high. Colonel Devin commented that he thought the Confederates would probably bypass them. Buford sternly responded: "You are wrong. The enemy will attack in the morning. He'll come booming three deep, and we shall have to fight like devils to maintain ourselves until the arrival of the infantry." That caution aside, Buford felt that he was ready for Heth's morning attack. He wrote later, "My arrangements were made for entertaining him."
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    At 5 o'clock on the morning of July 1, 1863, Confederate Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill marched east on the Chambersburg Pike toward Gettysburg with the divisions of Heth and Maj. Gen. W. Dorsey Pender and supported by the artillery battalions of Brig. Gen. John Pegram and Colonel David G. McIntosh, with Pegram's artillery in advance. At 5:20, Buford's advance pickets caught their first glimpse of Heth's division approaching Marsh Creek through the drizzly dawn haze. The farthest Union outposts across Willoughby Run soon came under fire, and the men quickly fell back, as per orders.
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    Leading his men into the Herbst's woods farm woodlot, just south of the McPherson's farm, General Reynolds was shot in the saddle and died almost instantly. Shot through the neck he reeled from the saddle and was taken to the rear.
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    Upon reaching Herr Ridge, Heth deployed Brig. Gens. James J. Archer's and Joseph R. Davis' brigades to the right and left of the Chambersburg Pike, with Brig. Gen. James J. Pettigrew and Colonel John M. Brockenbrough in reserve. The first ranks of Confederate skirmishers went trampling down Herr Ridge through the fields of wheat and across pastures with guns at the ready. The Union troopers silently trained their seven-shot Spencers at their advancing foes. Just as the Rebels splashed through Willoughby Run, they were staggered by a terrific burst from the concealed cavalrymen. Concurrently, the six guns of Lieutenant John Calef's battery of horse artillery fired deadly salvos into Archer's men. "My troops at this place had partial shelter behind a low stone fence, and were in short carbine range," wrote General Buford in his after action report. "Their fire was perfectly terrific, causing the enemy to break." Confused by the ferocity of Buford's massed fire, the Rebels withdrew to re-form for another assault.
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    Buford's men continued to fire furiously, holding Heth at bay for a full hour. Buford's pickets scattered themselves at intervals of 30 feet behind post-and-rail fences and kept up a rapid fire with their Sharps and Spencers, some firing up to 21 shots per minute with the repeater -- 10 times the Rebels' rate of fire. The Confederates, however, began to sense that only a small force was opposing them. Supported by artillery, they began to intensify their fire against Buford's horse soldiers, destroying two of Calef's guns. Taking refuge behind rocks and trees, Buford's skirmishers were slowly forced back across Willoughby Run onto the crest of McPherson's Ridge. There, Buford placed his dismounted cavalry along the banks of Willoughby Run, extending his line to the left as far as the Hagerstown Road and to the right to the Harrisburg Pike. He then placed an artillery battery on the Chambersburg Pike. With Devin's brigade holding the line from the Chambersburg Pike to the right and Gamble's line holding to the left of the road, Buford maintained a firm defensive position.
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    Because smoke began to obscure the battlefield, Buford climbed to the cupola in the Lutheran Seminary in order to better view the field. As the commander climbed the tower stairs, he glimpsed the scene before him and was filled with foreboding. "The Rebel infantry flowed forward like a human river escaping its banks," he later wrote. "Menacing rows of cannon were limbered and swung around...pointed toward [the] men." If support did not arrive soon, his gallant cavalry could not hold. Buford sent couriers galloping off to Reynolds and Meade to request infantry support.
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    Using the cupola as his command post, Buford directed the action for another desperate hour, fending off Confederate probing attacks. But by 9 a.m., Buford could see that Gamble's troopers were being pushed back across Willoughby Run. To the north of the Chambersburg Pike, Davis' Mississippi brigade was advancing in spite of Archer's repulse.
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    Buford descended the stairs to personally inspect Gamble's condition. He stationed a signal crew in the cupola of the seminary to monitor the battle and to search southward for a sign of Reynolds' approach. Sometime before 10 o'clock, the lookouts discerned a faint dust cloud approaching from the south. Buford, summoned to the cupola to observe the welcome sight of those oncoming reinforcements, had barely finished climbing the stairs when Reynolds, who had galloped a mile in advance of his column, drew up below and called out, "What's the matter, John?" Buford responded, "The devil's to pay!" After a hurried conference, Reynolds asked if Buford could hold until the infantry began arriving, to which he replied, "I reckon I can." As Reynolds galloped south to move up his I Corps, Buford's line was hotly engaged.
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    Shortly after 10 o'clock, Buford's cavalry began to show signs of weakening under the mounting pressure from Heth's division. As Gamble's men methodically fell back, Confederate skirmishers began to swiftly climb the slope, gaining momentum as another brigade supported them on the left. As Archer's men reached the crest of the ridge, they were met with a thunderous volley of musketry from the crack "Iron Brigade" of Brig. Gen. James Wadsworth's division, whose troops were advancing at the double-quick to relieve the battered cavalrymen. Gamble's men, who had to be dragged from the line by the officers, shouted encouragement to the black-hatted brigade: "We have got them now! Go and give them hell!" When Reynolds, at the forefront of the counterattack, entered McPherson's Woods to direct the emplacement of the men, a Confederate sharpshooter fired a single round into the back of Reynolds' head, killing him instantly.
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    Buford's men were withdrawn and redeployed to the flanks and rear to provide security as Union infantry filled the line. The battle lines continued to sway and writhe as each force struggled to surmount the other. In the afternoon, Buford learned from Devin's videttes that Confederate Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell's II Corps was massing in the north and quickly informed the commander of the Union XI Corps. As the forces joined at 1 p.m., the troops of Howard's XI Corps, exposed to a terrific enfilade that made their position untenable, broke and retreated east into Gettysburg, compelling the I Corps to follow suit. Once again, Buford stepped in, fighting a rear-guard action to allow the Union army to reach the safety of Cemetery Hill and Cemetery Ridge. Gamble's and Devin's men fought bravely on Seminary Ridge and the plains north of town.
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    That evening, Buford assisted Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock, sent to take command of the field, in the consolidation of the day's survivors and the construction of protective earthworks. Soon the fishhook-shaped defensive line was prepared for the next phase of the battle.
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    That ended the first day's battle at Gettysburg. Despite the odds they faced and the carnage of the next two days, Buford's troopers escaped with a total of 16 dead, 82 wounded, 38 missing and 13 horses killed. In the next two days, Lee's quest for a decisive victory ended in bitter failure. Had Lee been able to press through Gettysburg and take the heights of Cemetery Ridge and the Round Tops, the battle, and perhaps the war, might have ended differently. Buford's recognition of the value of the terrain at Gettysburg, his willingness to dismount his troopers and make a stand and his possession of the best small-arms technology of the day were deciding factors in the battle's outcome. In the final assessment, however, the most important factors were the courageous and tenacious leadership of Brig. Gen. John Buford and the indomitable spirit of the troopers of the 1st Cavalry Division, which presented the Union with the opportunity of victory at Gettysburg. As author and historian M.F. Steele ably put it in 1921, Buford's valiant stand was "the most valuable day's work done by the cavalry in the Civil War."

    Unfortunately for the Union, its greatest cavalry corps leader of 1863 was not destined to see the following year. In November 1863, Buford went on sick leave after contracting typhoid fever. He succumbed to the disease on December 16. John Buford's gravesite is at West Point Cemetery in New York. Buford was commissioned Major General on his deathbed.
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