I take it this Levinson considers himself a scholar and maybe even a Constitutional expert. If he does, then he doesn't get the reason for the electoral college. He mentions at the end of the above paragraph that larger states go relatively ignored on the presidential election stage while some smaller "battleground" states have strong influence. Well, that's the freaking point. If the popular vote was used to elect the president then California, NY, Pa., Mass., would dominate every election. The Founders didn't want that and we don't have that today. If we used the popular vote, Ohio, Florida, or Michigan wouldn't matter.Ignore, for discussion’s sake, the clauses that helped to entrench chattel slavery until it was eliminated by a brutal Civil War. Begin with the Senate and its assignment of equal voting power to California and Wyoming; Vermont and Texas; New York and North Dakota. Consider that, although a majority of Americans since World War II have registered opposition to the Electoral College, we will participate this year in yet another election that “battleground states” will dominate while the three largest states will be largely ignored.