Today in History
1263 At Largs, King Alexander III of Scotland repels an amphibious invasion by King Haakon IV of Norway.
1535 Having landed in Quebec a month ago, Jacques Cartier reaches a town, which he names Montreal.
1862 An Army under Union General Joseph Hooker arrives in Bridgeport, Alabama to support the Union forces at Chattanooga. Chattanooga's Lookout Mountain provides a dramatic setting for the Civil War's battle above the clouds.
1870 The papal states vote in favor of union with Italy. The capital is moved from Florence to Rome.
Morman leader Brigham Young, 70, is arrested for polygamy. He was later convicted, but the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the conviction.
1879 A dual alliance is formed between Austria and Germany, in which the two countries agree to come to the other's aid in the event of aggression.
1909 Orville Wright sets an altitude record, flying at 1,600 feet. This exceeded Hubert Latham's previous record of 508 feet.
1931 Aerial circus star Clyde Pangborn and playboy Hugh Herndon, Jr. set off to complete the first nonstop flight across the Pacific Ocean from Misawa City, Japan.
1941 The German army launches Operation Typhoon, the drive towards Moscow.
1950 The comic strip Peanuts, by Charles M. Schultz, makes its first appearance in newspapers.
1964 Scientists announce findings that smoking can cause cancer.
1967 Thurgood Marshall, the first African-American Supreme Court justice, is sworn in. Marshall had previously been the solicitor general, the head of the legal staff of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and a leading American civil rights lawyer.
Born on October 2
1847 Paul von Hindenburg, German Field Marshall during World War I and second president of the Weimar Republic.
1869 Mahatma Mohandas Gandhi, political leader of India and pioneer of nonviolent activism.
1871 Cordell Hull, Secretary of State for President Franklin Roosevelt.
1879 Wallace Stevens, poet.
1890 Julius Henry 'Groucho' Marx, comedian, one of the five Marx brothers (the others being Chico, Harpo, Zeppo and Gummo).
1900 William A. 'Bud' Abbot, comedian, the straight man to Lou Costello.
1901 Roy Campbell, poet (The Flaming Terrapin).
1904 Graham Greene, novelist (The Power and The Glory, The Heart of the Matter).