Today in History
1555 The Protestant martyrs Bishop Hugh Latimer and Bishop Nicholas Ridley are burned at the stake for heresy in England.
1701 Yale University is founded as The Collegiate School of Kilingworth, Connecticut by Congregationalists who consider Harvard too liberal.
1793 Queen Marie Antoinette is beheaded by guillotine during the French Revolution.
1846 Ether was first administered in public at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston by Dr. William Thomas Green Morton during an operation performed by Dr. John Collins Warren.
1859 Abolitionist John Brown, with 21 men, seizes the U.S. Armory at Harpers Ferry, Va. U.S. Marines capture the raiders, killing several. John Brown is later hanged in Virginia for treason.
1901 President Theodore Roosevelt incites controversy by inviting black leader Booker T. Washington to the White House.
1908 The first airplane flight in England is made at Farnsborough, by Samuel Cody, a U.S. citizen.
1934 Mao Tse-tung decides to abandon his base in Kiangsi due to attacks from Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists. With his pregnant wife and about 30,000 Red Army troops, he sets out on the "Long March."
1938 Billy the Kid, a ballet by Aaron Copland, opens in Chicago.
1940 Benjamin O. Davis becomes the U.S. Army's first African American Brigadier General.
1946 Ten Nazi war criminals are hanged in Nuremberg, Germany.
1969 The New York Mets win the World Series four games to one over the heavily-favored Baltimore Orioles.
1973 Israeli General Ariel Sharon crosses the Suez Canal and begins to encircle two Egyptian armies.
1978 The college of cardinals elects 58-year-old Karol Cardinal Wojtyla, a Pole, the first non-Italian Pope since 1523.
1984 A baboon heart is transplanted into 15-day-old Baby Fae–the first transplant of the kind–at Loma Linda University Medical Center, California. Baby Fae lives until November 15.
1995 The Million Man March for 'A Day of Atonement' takes place in Washington, D.C.
Born on October 16
1758 Noah Webster, U.S. teacher, lexicographer and publisher who wrote the American Dictionary of the English Language.
1797 Lord Cardigan, leader of the famed Light Brigade.
1849 George Washington Wiliams, historian, clergyman and politician.
1854 Oscar Wilde, dramatist, poet, novelist and critic.
1886 David Ben-Gurion, Israeli statesman.
1888 Eugene O'Neill, Nobel Prize-winning playwright (A Long Day's Journey Into Night, The Iceman Cometh).
1898 William O. Douglas, U.S. Supreme Court Justice.
1906 Cleanth Brooks, Kentucky-born writer and educator.
1919 Kathleen Winsor, writer Forever Amber.
1925 Angela Lansbury, stage, screen, and TV actress
1927 Gunther Grass, novelist, playwright, painter and sculptor best known for his first novel, The Tin Drum.
1930 Dan Pagis, Romanian-born Israeli poet.