Today in History
1220 After promising to go to the aid of the Fifth Crusade within nine months, Frederick II is crowned emperor by Pope Honorius III.
1542 New laws are passed in Spain giving Indians in America protection against enslavement.
1757 The Austrian army defeats the Prussians at Breslau in the Seven Years War.
1847 In New York, the Astor Place Opera House, the city's first operatic theater, is opened.
1902 A fire causes considerable damage to the unfinished Williamsburg bridge in New York.
1915 The Anglo-Indian army, led by British General Sir Charles Townshend, attacks a larger Turkish force under General Nur-ud-Din at Ctesiphon, Iraq, but is repulsed.
1919 A Labor conference committee in the United States urges an eight-hour workday and a 48-hour week.
1928 British King George is confined to bed with a congested lung; the queen is to take over duties.
1935 Pan Am inaugurates the first transpacific airmail service from San Francisco to Manila.
1936 1,200 soldiers are killed in a battle between the Japanese and Mongolians in China.
1942 Soviet troops complete the encirclement of the German Sixth Army at Stalingrad.
1948 Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam requests admittance to the UN.
1963 Lee Harvey Oswald assassinates President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas. Lyndon B. Johnson becomes president.
1964 Almost 40,000 people pay tribute to John F. Kennedy at Arlington Cemetery on the first anniversary of his death.
1973 Great Britain announces a plan for moderate Protestants and Catholics to share power in Northern Ireland.
1980 Eighteen Communist Party secretaries in 49 provinces are ousted from Poland.
1982 President Ronald Reagan calls for defense-pact deployment of the MX missile.
1986 Justice Department finds memo in Lt. Col. Oliver North's office on the transfer of $12 million to Contras of Nicaragua from Iranian arms sale.
Born on November 22
1819 George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans), English novelist (Silas Marner, Middlemarch).
1890 Charles de Gaulle, French general in exile during World War II and president of France from 1958 to 1969.
1899 Hoagy Carmichael, American composer, pianist and singer.
1913 Benjamin Britten, English composer, pianist and conductor.
1924 Geraldine Page, actress well known for roles in Tennessee Williams' plays.
1925 Gunther Schuller, composer and French Horn player.
1943 Billie Jean King, U.S. tennis player and women's rights pioneer.