1901 A great fire ravages Montreal, resulting in $2.5 million in property lost.
1913 The "Young Turks" revolt because they are angered by the concessions made at the London peace talks.
1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt enters the presidential race.
1948 The Soviets refuse UN entry into North Korea to administer elections.
1949 The Communist Chinese forces begin their advance on Nanking.
1950 Jerusalem becomes the official capital of Israel.
1951 President Truman creates the Commission on Internal Security and Individual Rights, to monitor the anti-Communist campaign.
1969 NASA unveils moon-landing craft.
1973 President Richard Nixon claims that Vietnam peace has been reached in Paris and that the POWs would be home in 60 days.
1977 Alex Haley's Roots begins a record-breaking eight-night broadcast on ABC.
1981 Under international pressure, opposition leader Kim Dae Jung's death sentence is commuted to life imprisonment in Seoul.
1986 U.S. begins maneuvers off the Libyan coast.
Born on January 23
1832 Édouard Manet, French impressionist painter best known for Luncheon in the Grass.
1899 Humphrey Bogart, U.S. film actor (The African Queen, Casablanca, The Maltese Falcon).
1919 Ernie Kovacs, U.S. comedian and television personality.
1957 Princess Caroline of Monaco.